The Dutch Safety Board said there was “no evidence of technical or human error” in the crash over eastern Ukraine that killed 298 people in July.
It is suspected that the jet was downed by pro-Russian rebels with weapons supplied by Moscow.
Dutch aviation investigators relied on information from the black box flight data recorders, air traffic control, satellite images and photos from the scene to compile the preliminary report, according to the BBC.
They said the plane “broke up in the air probably as the result of structural damage caused by a large number of high-speed objects that penetrated the aircraft from outside.”
The cockpit voice recorder revealed no signs of any technical faults or an emergency situation, the experts said.